Draft Gloucester City Plan 2016 - 2031

Draft Gloucester City Plan

Appendices

Appendices

Appendix 1

Glossary

Disclaimer – The Glossary is neither a statement of law nor an interpretation of the law. Its status is only an introductory and should not be used as a source for statutory definitions.

Accessibility: The ability of people to move around an area and reach places and facilities, including elderly and disabled people, those with young children and those encumbered with luggage or shopping.

Affordable Housing: Social rented, affordable rented and intermediate housing, provided to eligible households whose needs are not met by the market. Eligibility is determined with regard to local incomes and local house prices. Affordable housing should include provisions to remain at an affordable price for future eligible households or for the subsidy to be recycled for alternative affordable housing provision.

Air Quality Management Areas: Areas designated by local authorities because they are not likely to achieve national air quality objectives by the relevant deadlines.

Allotment: A plot of land rented by an individual or community for the purposes of growing food and/or flowers.

Amenity: A positive element or elements that contribute to the overall character or enjoyment of an area. For example, open land, trees, historic buildings and the inter-relationship between them, or less tangible factors such as tranquillity.

Amenity Space: Open land, often landscaped, that makes a positive contribution to the appearance of an area or improves the quality of the lives of people living or working within the locality.

Ancillary Use: A subsidiary or secondary use or operation closely associated with the main use of a building or piece of land.

Archaeological Assessment: An assessment of the potential archaeological interest of a site or building. This can be either a desk-based assessment or a field assessment, involving ground survey and small-scale pits or trial trenching carried out by professionally qualified archaeologist(s) looking for historical remains.

Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: An area with statutory national landscape designation, the primary purpose of which is to conserve and enhance natural beauty. Together with National Parks, AONB represent the nation's finest landscapes. AONB are designated by the Natural England.

Back-land Development: Development of 'landlocked' sites behind existing buildings, such as rear gardens and private open space, usually within predominantly residential areas. Such sites often have no street frontages.

Biodiversity: The whole variety of life encompassing all genetics, species and ecosystem variations, including plans and animals.

Biodiversity Action Plan: The whole variety of life encompassing all genetics, species and ecosystem variations, including plans and animals.

Brownfield Land and Sites: Previously developed land which is or was occupied by a permanent structure, including the curtilage of the developed land and any associated fixed surface infrastructure. Also see 'Previously-Developed Land'.

Bulky Goods: Goods of a large physical nature (for example DIY, furniture, carpets) that sometimes require large areas for storage or display.

City Centre: The highest order centre, often a regional or sub-regional retailing and service centre, serving a wide catchment.

City Plan: The Development Plan for the City of Gloucester

Climate Change: Long-term changes in temperature, precipitation, wind and all other aspects of the Earth's climate. Often regarded as a result of human activity and fossil fuel consumption.

Climate Change Adaption: Adjustments to natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic factors or their effects, including from changes in rainfall and rising temperatures, which moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.

Climate Change Mitigation: Action to reduce the impact of human activity on the climate system, primarily through reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Commitments: All land with current planning permission or allocated in adopted development plans for development (particularly residential development).

Community Facility: A place where the community can meet and come together to hold meetings and events.

Community Infrastructure Levy: A levy allowing local authorities to raise funds from owners or developers of land undertaking new building projects in their area. Learn more about the Community Infrastructure Levy.

Conservation: The process of maintaining and managing change to a heritage asset in a way that sustains and, where appropriate, enhances its significance.

Conservation Area: Local authorities have the power to designate as conservation areas, any area of special architectural or historic interest. This means the planning authority has extra powers to control works and demolition of buildings to protect or improve the character or appearance of the area. Conservation Area Consent has been replaced by planning permission for relevant demolition in a conservation area.

Convenience Goods: Everyday essential items, such as food.

Convenience Shopping: The provision of everyday essential items, such as food.

Conversions: Generally means the physical work necessary to change the use of a building from a particular use, classified in the use classes order, to another use. Can also mean the sub-division of residential properties into self-contained flats or maisonettes.

Culture: Culture includes arts, media, sports, libraries, museums, parks, and the countryside, built heritage, tourism, and the creative industries.

Curtilage: The area normally within the boundaries of a property surrounding the main building and used in connection with it.

Decentralised Energy: Local renewable energy and local low-carbon energy usually but not always on a relatively small scale encompassing a diverse range of technologies.

Density: In the case of residential development, a measurement of either the number of habitable rooms per hectare or the number of dwellings per hectare.

Development Management: The process whereby a local planning authority receives and considers the merits of a planning application and whether it should be given permission having regard to the development plan and all other material considerations.

Development Plan: A document setting out the local planning authority's policies and proposals for the development and use of land and buildings in the authority's area. This includes adopted Local Plans, neighbourhood plans and the London Plan, and is defined in section 38 of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004.

District Centres: A group of shops and some service outlets serving part of an urban area and providing a geographic focus for it, separate from the town centre but with more variety than local centres.

Dwelling and Dwelling House: A self-contained building or part of a building used as a residential accommodation, and usually housing a single household. A dwelling may be a house, bungalow, flat, maisonette or converted farm building.

Economic Development: Development, including those within the B Use Classes, public and community uses and main town centre uses (but excluding housing development).

Edge of Centre: For retail purposes, a location that is well connected and up to 300 metres of the primary shopping area. For all other main town centre uses, a location within 300 metres of a town centre boundary. For office development, this includes locations outside the town centre but within 500 metres of a public transport interchange. In determining whether a site falls within the definition of edge of centre, account should be taken of local circumstances.

Elevation: The actual facade (or face) of a building, or a plan showing the drawing of a facade.

Evidence Base: The information and data gathered by local authorities to justify the "soundness" of the policy approach set out in Local Development Documents, including physical, economic, and social characteristics of an area.

Flood Plain: Generally low-lying areas adjacent to a watercourse, tidal lengths of a river or the sea, where water flows in times of flood or would flow but for the presence of flood defences.

Flood Risk Assessment: An assessment of the likelihood of flooding in a particular area so that development needs and mitigation measures can be carefully considered.

Fossil Fuel: Carbon-rich fuel (coal, oil and natural gas) formed from the remains of ancient animals and plants. Their combustion is considered to contribute to the 'greenhouse effect'.

Geodiversity: The range of rocks, minerals, fossils, soils and landforms.

Greenbelt:  (not to be confused with the term ‘greenfield’). A designation for land around certain cities and large built-up areas, which aims to keep this land permanently open or largely undeveloped. The purposes of the green belt is to: check the unrestricted sprawl of large built up areas, prevent neighbouring towns from merging, safeguard the countryside from encroachment, preserve the setting and special character of historic towns, assist urban regeneration by encouraging the recycling of derelict and other urban land.     There is no designated Green Belt land within the Gloucester City Boundary. The Green Belt outside of the City is defined within the Joint Core Strategy.

Greenfield Land or Sites: Land (or a defined site) usually farmland, that has not previously been developed.

Greenhouse Effect/ Global Warming: The gradual heating of the Earth due to greenhouse gases, leading to climate change and rising sea levels. Renewable energy, energy efficient buildings and sustainable travel are examples of ways to help avert the greenhouse effect.

Green Infrastructure: A network of multi-functional green space, urban and rural, which is capable of delivering a wide range of environmental and quality of life benefits for local communities.

Groundwater: An important part of the natural water cycle present underground, within strata known as aquifers.

Heritage Asset: A building, monument, site, place, area or landscape identified as having a degree of significance meriting consideration in planning decisions, because of its heritage interest. Heritage asset includes designated heritage assets and assets identified by the local planning authority (including local listing).

Highway: A publicly maintained road, together with footways and verges.

Highways Agency: An executive agency of the Department for Transport. The Highways Agency is responsible for operating, maintaining and improving the strategic road network of England.

Historic Environment: All aspects of the environment resulting from the interaction between people and places through time, including all surviving physical remains of past human activity, whether visible, buried or submerged, and landscaped and planted or managed flora.

Historic Environment Record (HER): Information services that seek to provide access to comprehensive and dynamic resources relating to the historic environment of a defined geographic area for public benefit and use.

Housing Associations: A common term for independent, not-for-profit organisations that work with councils to offer flats and houses to local people.

Independent Retailer: A non-multiple retailer operating separately and outside of a larger company chain.

Infill development: The development of a relatively small gap between existing buildings.

Infrastructure: Basic services necessary for development to take place, for example, roads, electricity, sewerage, water, education and health facilities.

Joint Core Strategy: The local core strategy ‘Development Plan’ document for the administrative areas of Gloucester City, Cheltenham Borough and Tewkesbury Borough councils.

Layout: The way buildings, routes and open spaces are placed or laid out on the ground in relation to each other.

Legibility: (in terms of settlement patterns). A legible area is one with a strong sense of local identity. Locations, streets, open spaces and places that have a clear image and are easy to understand. For example, a location that is easy to find your way around.

Listed Building: A building of special architectural or historic interest. Listed buildings are graded I, II* or II with grade I being the highest. Listing includes the interior as well as the exterior of the building, and any buildings or permanent structures (e.g. wells within its curtilage).

Listed Building Consent: Consent required for the demolition, in whole or in part of a listed building, or for any works of alteration or extension that would affect the character of the building.

Local Centre: A small group of shops and perhaps limited service outlets of a local nature (for example, a suburban housing estate) serving a small catchment. Sometimes also referred to as a local neighbourhood centre.

Local Development Plan: See ‘Development Plan’

Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP): A body, designated by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, established for the purpose of creating or improving the conditions for economic growth in an area.

Local Planning Authority: The public authority whose duty it is to carry out specific planning functions for a particular area. All references to local planning authority apply to the district council, London borough council, county council, Broads Authority, National Park Authority and the Greater London Authority, to the extent appropriate to their responsibilities.

Main Town Centre Uses: Retail development (including warehouse clubs and factory outlet centres); leisure, entertainment facilities the more intensive sport and recreation uses (including cinemas, restaurants, drive-through restaurants, bars and pubs, night-clubs, casinos, health and fitness centres, indoor bowling centres, and bingo halls); offices; and arts, culture and tourism development (including theatres, museums, galleries and concert halls, hotels and conference facilities).

Master Plan: A type of planning brief outlining the preferred usage of land and the overall approach to the layout of a developer. To provide detailed guidance for subsequent planning applications.

Material Consideration: A matter that should be taken into account in deciding a planning application or on an appeal against a planning decision.

Minerals Local Plan: A statutory development plan prepared by a minerals planning authority (Gloucestershire County Council) under transitional arrangements, setting out policies for the control of development constituting of the winning and working of minerals or the deposit of mineral waste.

Mixed Use (or mixed use development): Provision of a mix of complementary uses, such as residential, community and leisure uses, on a site or within a particular area.

Multi-Use Games Area (MUGA): An enclosed area, using a synthetic grass or hard surface for playing sports, for example five-a-side soccer or netball.

Nature Improvement Area: The protection, management and promotion of wildlife habitat for the benefit of wild species, as well as the communities that use and enjoy them.

Neighbourhood Development Plan: A plan prepared by a Parish Council or Neighbourhood Forum for a particular neighbourhood area (made under the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004).

National Planning Policy Framework: The Government’s planning policies for England and how these are expected to be applied.

Older People: People over retirement age, including the active, newly-retired through to the very frail elderly, whose housing needs can encompass accessible, adaptable general needs housing for those looking to downsize from family housing and the full range of retirement and specialised housing for those with support or care needs.

Open Space: All open space of public value, including not just land, but also areas of water (such as rivers, canals, lakes and reservoirs) which offer important opportunities for sport and recreation and can act as a visual amenity.

Original Building: A building as it existed on 1 July 1948 or, if constructed after 1 July 1948, as it was built originally.

Out-of-Centre: A location which is not in or on the edge of a centre but not necessarily outside the urban area.

Out-of-Town: A location out of centre that is outside the existing urban area.

Over-development: An amount of development (for example, the quantity of buildings or intensity of use) that is excessive in terms of demands on infrastructure and services, or impact on local amenity and character.

Overbearing: A term used to describe the impact of a development or building on its surroundings, particularly a neighbouring property, in terms of its scale, massing and general dominating effect.

Overlooking: A term used to describe the effect when a development or building affords an outlook over adjoining land or property, often causing loss of privacy.

Overshadowing: The effect of a development or building on the amount of natural light presently enjoyed by a neighbouring property, resulting in a shadow being cast over that neighbouring property.

Planning Brief: A planning brief can include site-specific development briefs, design briefs, development frameworks and master plans that seek to positively shape future development.

Planning Condition: A condition imposed on a grant of planning permission (in accordance with the Town and Country Planning Act 1990) or a condition included in a Local Development Order or Neighbourhood Development Order.

Planning Field: The whole of a site which encompasses at least one playing pitch as defined in The Town and Country Planning (Development Management Procedure) (England) Order 2015.

Pollution: Anything that affects the quality of land, air, water or soils, which might lead to an adverse impact on human health, the natural environment or general amenity. Pollution can arise from a range of emissions, including smoke, fumes, gases, dust, steam, odour, noise and light.

Previously Developed Land: Land which is or was occupied by a permanent structure, including the curtilage of the developed land (although it should not be assumed that the whole of the curtilage should be developed) and any associated fixed surface infrastructure. This excludes: land that is or has been occupied by agricultural or forestry buildings; land that has been developed for minerals extraction or waste disposal by landfill purposes where provision for restoration has been made through development control procedures; land in built-up areas such as private residential gardens, parks, recreation grounds and allotments; and land that was previously-developed but where the remains of the permanent structure or fixed surface structure have blended into the landscape in the process of time.

Primary and secondary frontages: Primary frontages are likely to include a high proportion of retail uses which may include food, drinks, clothing and household goods. Secondary frontages provide greater opportunities for a diversity of uses such as restaurants, cinemas and businesses.

Primary Shopping Area: Defined area where retail development is concentrated (generally comprising the primary and those secondary frontages which are adjoining and closely related to the primary shopping frontage).

Private Open Space: Open space that is usually privately owned and is not usually accessible by members of the public.

Protected Species: Plants and animal species afforded protection under certain Acts and Regulations.

Public Art: Permanent or temporary physical works of art visible to the general public, whether part of a building or free-standing. For example, sculpture, lighting effects, street furniture, paving, railings and signs.

Public Open Space (POS): Urban space, designated by a council, where public access may or may not be formally established, but which fulfils or can fulfil a recreational or non-recreational role (for example, amenity, ecological, educational, social or cultural usages).

Public Realm: Those parts of a village, town or city (whether publicly or privately owned) available, for everyone to use. This includes streets, squares and parks.

Regeneration: The economic, social and environmental renewal and improvement of the City.

Renewable and Low Carbon Energy: Includes energy for heating and cooling as well as generating electricity. Renewable energy covers those energy flows that occur naturally and repeatedly in the environment – from the wind, the fall of water, the movement of the oceans, from the sun and also from biomass and deep geothermal heat. Low carbon technologies are those that can help reduce emissions (compared to conventional use of fossil fuels).

Retail Floorspace: Total floor area of the property that is associated with all retail uses. Usually measured in square metres. May be expressed as a net figure (the sales area) or in gross (including storage, preparation and staff areas).

Retail Impact: The potential effects of proposed retail development upon existing shops.

Retail Impact Assessment: An assessment undertaken for an application for retail use (normally on developments over 2,500 square metres gross floorspace, but they may occasionally be necessary for smaller developments, such as those likely to have a significant impact on smaller centres) on the impact of the proposal on the vitality and viability of existing centres within the catchment area of the proposed development. The assessment includes the likely cumulative effect of recent permissions, developments under construction and completed developments.

Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI): A site designated by Natural England under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 as an area of special interest by reason of any of its flora, fauna, geological or physiographical features (plants, animals and natural features relating to the Earth's structure).

Supplementary Planning Documents (SPD): Documents which add further detail to the policies in the Local Plan. They can be used to provide further guidance for development on specific sites, or on particular issues, such as design. Supplementary planning documents are capable of being a material consideration in planning decisions but are not part of the development plan.

Supplementary Planning Guidance (SPG): May cover a range of issues, both thematic and site specific and provide further detail of policies and proposals in a development plan.

Sustainability Appraisal (SA): An appraisal of the economic, environmental and social effects of a plan from the outset of the preparation process to allow decisions to be made that accord with sustainable development.

Sustainable Transport Modes: Any efficient, safe and accessible means of transport with overall low impact on the environment, including walking and cycling, low and ultra low emission vehicles, car sharing and public transport.

Transport Assessment: A comprehensive review of all the potential transport impacts of a proposed development or re-development, with an agreed plan to mitigate any adverse consequences.

Travel Plan: A long-term management strategy for an organisation or site that seeks to deliver sustainable transport objectives through action and is articulated in a document that is regularly reviewed.

Tree Preservation Order: A mechanism for securing the preservation of single or groups of trees of acknowledged amenity value. A tree subject to a tree preservation order may not normally be topped, lopped or felled without the consent of the local planning authority.

Urban Design: The art of making places. It involves the design of buildings, groups of buildings, spaces and landscapes, in villages, towns and cities, to create successful development.

Urban Regeneration: Making an urban area develop or grow strong again through means such as job creation and environmental renewal.

Veteran Tree: A tree which, because of its great age, size or condition is of exceptional value for wildlife, in the landscape, or culturally.

Ward: A small sub-area of a local authority district.

Windfall Site: Sites which have not been specifically identified as available in the Local Plan process. They normally comprise previously-developed sites that have unexpectedly become available.

Acronyms

AONB                         Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty

AQMA                         Air Quality Management Areas

BAP                             Biodiversity Action Plan

JCS                             Joint Core Strategy

HER                            Historic Environment Record

HRA                            Habitat Regulations Assessment

LDS                             Local Development Scheme

LEAP                           Locally Equipped Area of Play

LEP                             Local Enterprise Partnership

MUGA                         Multi Use Games Area

NPPF                          National Planning Policy Framework

POS                            Public Open Space

PPG                            Planning Practice Guidance

PSA                             Primary Shopping Area

SA                               Sustainability Appraisal

SALA                           Strategic Assessment of Land Availability

SCI                              Statement of Community Involvement

SHMA                         Strategic Housing Market Assessment

SPD                            Supplementary Planning Document

SPG                            Supplementary Planning Guidance

SSSI                            Site of Special Scientific Interest

TPO                            Tree Preservation Order